Autism

 

Helping Children with Autism

There are many things parent and teacher can do to help children with autism overcome their challenges. Being emotionally strong allows you to be the best parents and teachers to the child in need. Therapist can help by making life with an autistic child easier.

A Parent’s guide to Autism treatment and support

1. Donot wait for a diagnosis:

As the parent of child with autism or related development delays, the best thing you can do is to start treatment right away. Seek help as soon as you suspect something wrong.

2. Learn about autism:

The more you know about the autism, the better equipped you will be to make informed decisions for your child. Educate yourself about the treatment options, ask questions, and participate in all treatment decisions.

3. Become an expert on your child:

Figure out what triggers your kid’s “bad” or disruptive behaviors and what elicits a positive response. What does your autistics child find stressful? Calming? Uncomfortable? Enjoyable? If you understand what effects your child, you will be better at trouble shooting problems and preventing situation that cause difficulties.

4. Accept your child, quirks and all:

Rather than focusing on how your autistics child is different from other children and what he or she is missing, practice acceptance. Enjoy your child’s special quirks, celebrate small success, and stop comparing your child to others. Feeling unconditionally loved and accepted will help your child more than anything else.

5. Do not Give up:

It is impossible to predict the course of an autism spectrum disorder. Do not jump to conclusions about what life is going to be like for your child. Like everyone else, people with autism have and entire life time to grow and develop their abilities.

6. Be Consistent:

Children with autism have to learned in one setting to others ( such as therapist’s office or classroom ), including home. Creating consistency in your child’s environment is the best way to reinforce learning. Find out what your child’s therapists are doing and continue their techniques at home.

7. Stick to a schedule:

Children with autism tend to do best when they have a highly structured schedules or routine. Try to keep disruptions to this routine to a minimum. If there is an unavoidable schedule change, prepare your child for it in advance.

8. Reward good behavior:

Positive reinforcement can go a long way with children with autism, so make an effort to “ catch them doing something good”. Praise them when they act appropriately or learn a new skill.

9. Create a home safty zone:

Carve out private space in your home where your child can relax, feel secure and be safe. Visual cues can be helpful for example colored tape marking areas that are off limits, labeling items in the house with pictures. You many also need to safety proof your house, specially if your child is prone to tantrums of other self injurious behaviors.

10. Look for nonverbal cues:

You can learn to pick up on the nonverbal cues that children with autism use to communicate. Pay attention to the kinds of sounds they make, their facial expressions, and the gestures they use when they are tired, hungry or want something.

11. Figure out the need behind the tantrum:

It is only natural to feel upset when you are misunderstood or ignored, and it’s no different for children with autism. Throwing a tantrum is their way communicating their frustration and getting your attention.

12. Make time for fun:

For both children with autism and their parents, there needs to be more to life than therapy. Schedule playtime when your child is most alert and awake.

13. Pay attention to the Child’s sensory Sensitivities:

Many children with autism are hyper sensitive to light, sound, touch, taste, and smell. Other children with autism are under sensitive to sensory stimuli. Figure out what kind of sight, sound, smell, movements and tactile sensations trigger your kind’s bad or disruptive behaviors and what elicits a positive response.

A teacher’s guide to autism treatment and support:

1. Parent’s guide for the management of an autistic child can also be helpful for a teacher of the same type of child.

2. A good autism treatment plan can be built on child’s interest.

3. Teacher can offer a predictable schedule of activities.

4. Teacher’s tasks should consist of a series of simple steps.

5. Teacher should wait for “right time” when the child is most alert and responsive and then engage child’s attention actively in highly structured activities.

6. Provide regular reinforcement of behavior.

7. Try to involve parents, siblings or other play mates in some learning sessions.

8. Find out child’s strength and make nesses and weakness in view while designing same activity or task for child and his/her parents.

9. Active involvement and creative skills of teacher are Vital to the child’s benefit and teacher’s success.

10. Keep in touch with other members of treatment team, for example, psychotherapist, speech therapist, physiotherapist, sensory therapist, occupational therapist, nutritional therapist or simply family physician.

11. Create autism support group for parents. Arrange parent’s meetings with families dealing with the same challenges, and encourage them to share experiences and information.

12. Request an I.E.P meeting at any time if your feel that child’s needs are not being met and a major change in I.E.P is required.

13. Give fewer choices if a child is asked to pick a color, say red only give him two or three choice to pick from. Give very clear choice.

14. Keep your language simple. Reword your sentence if child does not understand.

15. Repeat instructions and checking understanding. Provide very clear structure and a set of daily routine including time for play.

16. Teach what is finished and what new is going to be learned.

17. Address the pupil individually by calling name all times.

18. Use various means of presentation, visual, physical guidance, peer modeling etc.

19. Avoid overstimulation. Remove distracters, when a task involving concentration is set.

20. Explore word processing and computer based learning for literacy.

21. Protect the pupil from teasing at free times and provide peers with awareness of his/her particular needs.

How Parents Cope with a Mentally Challenges Child

Parents of a mentally challenged child experience many emotional difficulties, including self blame helplessness, unrealistic expectations, whrries for the future and marital strain.

Education:

Learn about the challenges your child is facing the more you learn, the more you will be able to help your child and yourself. Ask your child’s doctor, teacher and therapist for book recommendations that will educate you about your child’s challenges and prouder ways for you to encourage his independence at home.

Support Groups:

Many parents of mentally challenged children benefit from joining a parent group and meeting other families with similar needs. There also exist online support groups and prouder information and emotional support. Local parent groups many exit in your area, and your family can meet other families facing similar challenges in person.

Respite:

All parents need a break form the responsibilities of caring for their child. But parents of a child with disabilities may have more difficulty accessing this type of relief. Seek out parents of other special needs children who are qualified and experienced in caring for a mentally challenged child and ask if you can work out a trade where you take tarns watching each others children while the other couple has a chance to run errands or enjoy a day out.

Counseling: Parents of disabled children go through a grieving process that includes shock, denial, anger and acceptance. Schools should provide a list of counselors for parents of disabled children. A Professional for parents of disabled children. A professional will be able to help you reach a healthy balance of hopes for your child with the reality of your Childs achievements and development.

Tips for Parents:

  • Be Patient, be hopeful, your child has whole life time to learn and grow.
  • Encourage independence in your child. Help your child learn daily care skills such as dressing, feeding and using bath room.
  • Give your child chores keeping her/his age, attention span, and abilities in mind.
  • Break down jobs into smaller steps and then ask the child conflate thise steps while learning new things.
  • Demonstrate how to do the job and ask her/him to do step by step.
  •  Help the child when he/she needs assistance.
  • Give your child frequent feedback. Prose your child when he/she does well.
  • Find out what skill is your child learning at school. Find way for your child to apply those skills at home.
  • Find opportunities in your community for social activities such as scouts, recreation center activities, sports and so on.
  • Take pleasure in your unique and beautiful child. He/ she is a treasure. Learn from your child too. Those with intellectual disabilities have a special light with in. Let it shine

Teaching Students with intellectual challenges

  • Use visual aids because lengthy verbal instructions, and lectures have limited appeal for almost all students, and are particularly ineffective in teaching a mentally challenged child.
  •  Use visual stimuli such as charts, drawing and models. You can also use charts to track a child’s educational or behavioral progress.
  •  Use hands on demonstrations. Mentally challenged children may have difficulty in grasping abstract concepts.
  •  Fang age the children in a sensory way. For example explaining gravity verbally to a mentally challenged child will be confusing. Instead give him a book and let him drop it.
  • Use flexibility with task or assignment. The good here is to learn to work with the child’s unique strength to accomplish task.
  • Break information or task into smaller parts. Do not present too much informant to them all at once.
  • Set your, expectations in accordance with the child’s disability. A Severely disabled child might simply be taught to communicate huger.
  • Be a part of I.E.P and discuss child’s progress with other members of I.E.P team.
  • Be patient enough to lugh and keep calm even after a disturbed child attacks you.
  • Keep sharp tools and stationary. Items out of reach of the child, in the drawer of about the level of his height.
  • Prouide direct and immediate feedback. This enabled he child make a connection between their behavior and the teacher’s response.
  • Ensue that sitting arrangement in the classroom is favorable for children. Light, ventilation of air and room temperature is according to child’s physical needs.
  • Develop a support plan for the rehabilitation of child and parents to ensure child’s welfare.
  • Analyze child’s behavior and make sense that what annoys the child and what makes him/her comfortable.
  • Arranges for physical and sensory skills training of children.
  • Life skills training should be compulsory part of children’s I.E.P.
  • Reffer the stable children for screening and send them in inclusive education if they are suitable for it.
  • Emphasize on functional academics if the child can learn money management, maintaining personal hygiene, dressing a wounded classmate, doing house hold chores, can cook for him/her self.
  • Prepare the children for some job and financial independence after leaving special school.
  • Create a play way environment to teach special children.
  • Use incentives for motivation. Give the children free books, copies and percils.
  • Call them with their actual names. They can feel your love and affection. The only way to change the behavior of mentally challenged children is to give them love.
  • If committed mistake, never give them hard punishment. It will scatter their courage.
  • Many special children act out inappropriately simply because they know they are different and can get away with it. It is important to ignore these behaviors, and to reward appropriate behavior with praise and extra privileges.

How to teach blind student

Syllabus for the blinds:

While making syllabus for the blind children, following considerations for the blind children, following considerations or aspects should be kept in view. These are nine unique educational needs of blind students.

I. Compensatory or junction academics skills, including communication modes

II. Orientation and mobility.

III. Social interaction skills.

IV. Independent living skills.

V. Recreation and bistre skills.

VI. Career education.

VII. Use of assistive technology.

VIII. Sensory efficiency skills.

IX. Self determination.

Tips for working with blind students:

  • Braille books and other material should be stored on a shelf or in a box to save from damage.
  •  Electronic dictionary or cell phone dictionary should be used to teach glossary.
  • Read over the material written on chalkboard, charts or books to facilitate blind students.
  • The use of talking calculator is not appropriate until math facts are memorized and your class begins to work with calculators.
  •  Use of electronic devices which translate Braille into print as the student Braille.
  • Ring binders and pocket folders should be used to keep work sheets or every thing together in one place.
  • If a particular behavior bugs you or seems socially in appropriate, beep change that behavior.
  • Verbalize and write simultaneously if it is inevitable to write on white board.
  •  Glance over to the blind students to make sure he is following your instructions.
  •  Before starting a new chapter, ask the students questions to chock understanding of the task.
  •  Don’t be afraid to use the words “look” and “see” as these sound more normal than saying things like “here feel this” or “did you listen to TV last night?”
  •  If it is difficult to feel Braille dots, change the finger.
  •  Tell the students to take special care of hands to maintain sense in finger tips. Avoid too much high or low temperature to get in contact with finger tips.
  •  Talk with the child about his or her interests and experiences and expect the child to follow rules that are appropriate to his / her developmental level.
  •  Always let a visually impanired child know when you are approaching or leaving. Never make a game of having child guess who you are. Identify by name who you are. Otherwaise it can be confusing, frightening or frustrating to child.
  •  Briefly describe aspect of the environment that might be of importance or interest to the child that he or she control see.
  •  Use words like blind or visually impored in normal conversation with the child, but only when they are important to the topics being discussed.
  •  Discourage hand holding as travel assistance. While walking together, she or he can hold your arm above elbow level or provide a white cane to the student.
  • Provide counseling to the student and parents when needed, or refer to an expert counselor.
  • Explore child’s interest and guide her/him to decide which profession to be adapted

Tips for working with deaf students: Here are some teaching tips/guidelines for deaf students. Communication Considerations Effective communication is vital with a hearing impaired student to ensure student success. Since many hard of hearing students rely on lip-reading, at least partially, it is important to keep a few points in mind when you are teaching.

  • Look directly at the student and face him or her when communicating or teaching.
  •  Say the student’s name or signal their attention in some way before speaking.
  •  Assign the student a desk near the front of the classroom, or where you plan to deliver most of your lectures.
  •  Speak naturally and clearly. Remember speaking louder won’t help.
  •  Do not exaggerate your lip movements, but slowing down a little may help some students.
  •  Use facial expressions, gestures and body language to help convey your message, but don’t overdo it.
  •  Some communication may be difficult for the hard of hearing student to understand. Explicitly teach idioms and explain jokes and sarcasm.
  •  Young hearing impaired children often lag in the development of social graces. Consider teaching specific social skills such as joining in to games or conversation, maintaining conversations, and staying on topic.
  •  Male teachers should keep moustaches well groomed. Remember some strategies and techniques work for some students while other students are successful using other techniques. Sometimes it takes time to understand one another and to learn each other’s habits, so give the relationship some time. Be patient and find the strategies that work best for your hearing impaired student(s). Teaching Strategies • When new materials are to be covered which involve technical terminology not in common usage, supply a list of these words or terms in advance to the student and interpreter. Unfamiliar words are difficult to interpret. • Students who use interpreters are receiving the information several seconds after the rest of the class. Allow enough time for the student to get the information from the interpreter before calling on someone. When asking the class to respond, have them raise their hands, rather than just shout out the answer. This will allow the deaf or hard of hearing student to participate. • Repeat questions from the class before responding. Remember, a student using an ALD hears only what comes from the microphone, thus misses anything else spoken. • Don’t talk to the class at the same time you’re having them read something. • When reading aloud, don’t read so quickly that the deaf or hard of hearing student and interpreter can’t keep up with you and the rest of the class. • Remember deaf and hard of hearing students rely on visual cues such as body language and expressions to gather information